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peer reviewed articles on strategic planning

Abstract. Establishing the direction of your practice and identifying overarching goals provide the foundation for strategic planning, whether short or long term. However, we would also encourage practitioners to keep in mind “how” they implement SP. Regarding your community, although your group naturally knows the local marketplace well, an outsider can provide a fresh and objective perspective; in fact, the familiarity of physicians with the local scene may create blind spots. Goal‐setting theory proposes that organizations with goals perform better because goals ensure that activities and resources are focused on addressing core issues and employees understand the priorities of the organization (Jung and Lee 2013; Locke and Latham 2002). Apart from more middle‐range theorizing, we see additional research avenues based on the analyzed studies. figure 1 offers an overview of the systematic literature review. contexts. A continuous increase of complexity and the capacity of physicians will not ensure the fundamental requirement of any business: to really deliver what its customers need. (May 01, 2009) Using stakeholder management techniques can help ensure that during SP stakeholders are involved in a feasible and relevant manner. Thus, in this article, three specific conditions (and five moderators) that could influence the impact that SP has on OP are assessed. This is important because there are several types of stakeholders and a variety of tools to assess stakeholders’ involvement. Peer-reviewed articles are assessed and critiqued by the scientists and experts in the same field after the article is distributed for review. The study’s purposes were to (a) determine the extent to which university athletic departments in the United Kingdom use strategic planning, (b) identify key factors discouraging strategic planning, and (c) examine relationships between use of strategic planning and the variables university size and athletic director’s background. This resulted in 139 hits. The Harvard policy model was one of the first SP models to emerge, and it introduced SWOT analysis (Andrews 1980). However, recent conceptualizations of OP in public organizations have indicated that it is not any one thing. One particular contingency stands out especially when looking at complexity theory's criticism of SP. The leader’s job is to create the vision for the enterprise in a way that will engage both the imagination and the energies of its people. “It could lead to confusion if the broad organization and the practice are going in different directions.”. The outcome of developing strategies should be the prioritization of a few (ie, two to five) achievable strategies and creation of related action plans. Additionally, other OP dimensions have been identified within the public administration literature but were not part of the analyzed studies in our meta‐analysis. ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI). Indeed, most approaches to SP incorporate attention to and analysis of both the organization and its environment, including defining strategies to ensure organization‐environment fit (Bryson 2011). When developing a vision statement, an atmosphere of openness should prevail to encourage creativity and thinking beyond current boundaries. Cancer.Net, Obviously, this does not imply that there is no research from non‐U.S. Developing Quality Strategic Plan In Secondary Schools For Successful School Improvement Fides Okwukweka Chukwumah Dept. Similarly, SP public management scholarship has predominantly emanated from the United States, reflecting trends in the public sector (see the reviews of Bryson, Berry, and Yang 2010; George and Desmidt 2014; Poister, Pitts, and Edwards 2010). published online before print Challenging the Performance Movement: Accountability, Complexity and Democratic Values, Meta‐Analysis for Public Management and Policy, The File Drawer Problem and Tolerance for Null Results, Meta‐Analytic Procedures for Social Research, The Benefits of Bureaucracy: Public Managers’ Perceptions of Political Support, Goal Ambiguity, and Organizational Effectiveness, U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), Government Performance: GPRA Modernization Act Provides Opportunities to Help Address Fiscal, Performance, and Management Challenges, Strategy and Organizational Capacity: Finding a Fit, Strategic Management and Performance in Public Organizations: Findings from the Miles and Snow Framework, Local Government Management and Performance: A Review of Evidence, Wakeup Call: Strategic Management, Network Alarms, and Performance, Public Management and Performance: Research Directions, Strategic Planning Research: Toward a Theory‐Driven Agenda. E‐mail:, Richard M. Walker holds the Chan Hon‐pun Professorship in Behavioral and Policy Sciences, is Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Director of the Laboratory for Public Management and Policy and Chair Professor in the Department of Public Policy at City University of Hong Kong. They argue that involvement of suppliers, customers, shareholders and employees in strategic change easens the strategy implementation by reducing the level of resistance and opposition to strategic implementation process. Be alert to the pitfalls of discussing operational issues and trying to decide on tactics instead of identifying strategies. E‐mail:, Joost Monster is associate consultant at Focus Orange in the Netherlands. Evidence from the U.S. Public Transit Industry, Strategic Management Research in the Public Sector: A Review, Synthesis, and Future Directions, Elements of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: Status after Two Decades, Managerialism and the Public Services: The Anglo‐American Experience. Communicate the strategic goals and action plan to all clinical and administrative staff. Physicians and staff leaders at the Zangmeister Center are involved with the Community Oncology Alliance and other oncology organizations at both national and state levels, and each staff manager actively participates in a professional organization. One of the first and most vocal critiques was articulated by Mintzberg (1994), who argued that SP does not equal or necessarily contribute to strategic thinking. Finally, 24 articles used single‐source data, and 9 used multiple‐source data. Previous studies have shown that participation in SP or strategic decision making acts as a moderator between decision‐making processes and outcomes (e.g., De Dreu and West 2001; Elbanna 2008). The SWOT analysis—an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of your practice—is a staple of strategic planning. Typically clustered within notions of logical incrementalism (Quinn 1978), these frameworks hold that SP is overly rational, planned, and fixed. Proponents claim that organizations require more flexible, ongoing methods of strategy formulation that are particularly open to emerging strategies rather than planned, deliberate strategies (Mintzberg 1978). Managing Performance and Strategy: Managerial Practices in German Local Governments. In the framework of a traditional strategic plan, the mission statement is concisely expressed in not more than one or two sentences, with value statements articulated separately. Her summary is then reviewed and discussed during the strategic planning retreat. Create an action plan to address each strategic priority within the next 12 months. The Opportunity Costs of Local Government Organizational Capabilities. If possible, investigate the perceptions of individuals outside the practice—patients, hospital administrators, and referring physicians, for example. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. This distinction is included because many SP practices have emerged in the United States. This article defines the strategic planning process at the school level, focusing on steps involved, ways to diagnose school readiness for undertaking the effort, skills needed for effective process facilitation, and implications of strategic planning for staff development. The aforementioned description of SP centers on the formality of the SP process. Additionally, complexity theory has also argued against SP's effectiveness by indicating that SP might be adept in straightforward, routine organizations but less so in complex organizations, systems, or networks (Bovaird 2008). SP offers such an approach to assisting decision making in the context of establishing purposes, goals, and strategies. JCO Oncology Practice However, as an overall robustness check (i.e., to account for studies clustering a large amount of correlations), we reran the meta‐analysis using only one average correlation per study. Effective communication and cultivation of a team culture are especially important if your strategic planning results in changes or begins moving the practice in a new direction. Strategic Planning in Hospitals. Similarly, the politicized and adaptive contexts of public organizations have been argued to militate against its effectiveness (Bovaird 2008; Buller 2015). If your practice is so large that including all partners could make a meeting unwieldy, it might make sense to have a smaller group, such as the executive board, do the planning. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of 3 rd International Conference on Leadership, Technology and Innovation Management Corresponding author. First, we performed the analysis for all 87 correlations. Scholars writing about both private and public organizations have subscribed to this argument (e.g., Magnan and St. Onge 2005; Stazyk and Goerdel 2011). Toward a Balanced Approach on Common Source Bias in Public Administration Scholarship, The Impact of Performance Management on Performance in Public Organizations: A Meta‐Analysis, Primary, Secondary, and Meta‐Analysis of Research, Organizational Correlates of Public Service Motivation: A Meta‐Analysis of Two Decades of Empirical Research, Strategic Planning Environment, Process, and Performance in Public Agencies: A Comparative Study of Departments in Milwaukee, Measuring Organizational Performance: Beyond the Triple Bottom Line, Common Method Bias in Public Management Studies, Strategic Planning and the Fiscal Performance of City Governments during the Great Recession, Impacts of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: An Analysis of Subjective Survey and Objective Production and Efficiency Measures in Norway, Goals, Strategic Planning, and Performance in Government Agencies, Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation: A 35‐Year Odyssey, The Impact of Profit Sharing on the Performance of Financial Services Firms, The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs, Comparative Public Management: Why National, Environmental, and Organizational Context Matters, The Strategic Management Process at the Public Planning Unit Level, Public Management, Context, and Performance: In Quest of a More General Theory, Strategic Planning Characteristics Applied to Project Management. J Oncol Pract 3:9-12, 2007, Akscin J, Barr TR, Towle EL: Key practice indicators in office-based oncology practices: 2007 report on 2006 data. Despite the often very vocal and potent criticisms toward SP, based on the current research evidence, it appears that SP “works” across sectors and countries. A meta‐analysis of 31 empirical studies (87 correlations) published in journals in the Social Sciences Citations Index was conducted to answer this question. Successful Strategic Plan Implementation in Public Organizations: Connecting People, Process, and Plan (3Ps). Having a complex environment with many stakeholders might make it harder for organizations to analyze their environment and define agreed‐upon priorities during SP. Published online Holcombe distributes a questionnaire to solicit information from each physician and also interviews key individuals. Scholarship on SP and OP has not always taken into account the contextual reality of public administration and management (Bryson, Berry, and Yang 2010; Poister, Pitts, and Edwards 2010). JCO Global Oncology “One purpose of the strategic planning meeting was to get everyone in the room at the same time to identify where we agree and disagree and to reach compromise. Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. The quality of the study is ensured by means of peer‐review within the research group, member checks, by presenting the results to the respondents and triangulation of several data‐sources. Mintzberg (1994) declared the fall of SP a quarter of a century ago. In turn, the t‐statistic was calculated by dividing the unstandardized regression coefficient by its standard error. The authors also want to thank the public administration group at Erasmus University Rotterdam—in particular, Joop Koppenjan, Erik‐Hans Klijn, and Bram Steijn—for their helpful insights on an earlier version of this article. These findings could be used to assist in the development of more fine‐grained theorization on the SP–OP relationship., Holcombe D: Strategic planning and retreats for practices. DOI: 10.1200/JOP.0936501 Journal of Oncology Practice - Soper WD: The meeting you won't want to miss: Annual strategic planning. A meta‐analysis is needed to inject evidence into this debate. For example, your vision may be to provide multidisciplinary services to your community, but your vision statement would not include a specific strategy, such as merging with a certain radiology group or recruiting two physicians. Over the past few decades it has become more and more important to plan for the future in order for any healthcare practice to be successful for years to come. ASCO Author Services 5, no. To narrow down big lists, Guidi describes two approaches that work well when groups meet more than once. He or she knows how to collect and analyze diverse information—opinions, practice data, and market reports, for example—and present it in a concise way, thereby saving you and your administrator many hours of work. “Different opinions about the direction of a practice are very healthy,” says Guidi. For instance, governance, democratic, and transparency outcomes have all been argued to be important dimensions of public service performance (Walker, Boyne, and Brewer 2010), and we encourage future studies focusing on identifying whether and how SP is similarly useful for these performance dimensions. Make sure the action plan is in a format that can and will be used by those with responsibility for implementation. There is increasing demand for formal and informal training programs especially for physicians in leadership positions. This helps enhance SP's impact on OP. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The biggest mistake people make is already having the end result in mind when they start.”, Of all the compelling reasons for your group to engage in strategic planning, perhaps the most critical is the speed at which forces in your environment are changing. This seemingly points toward SP being a “generic” management practice that can help all organizations perform better. However, participatory SP did have a significantly weaker impact than formal SP. Rather, SP can be particularly helpful to making organizations more effective, meaning that strategies are successfully implemented and goals are achieved. SP should include an informed process during which the internal and external environment is analyzed, clear strategies and goals are defined based on this analysis, and different courses of action are generated and carefully considered before making final decisions. The symmetry in this plot indicates no publication bias. SP's prominence in the public sector grew apace from the 1980s onward (George and Desmidt 2014). The vision statement for your group should be painted in broad strokes, not in detail, and it should represent the end point, not the strategy for achieving it. differences. Importantly, while these reforms were sparked by NPM‐type thinking, it should be noted that (a) these reforms mostly focused on one specific aspect of SP (namely, formulating and reporting on goals) and (b) SP existed in different forms in the public sector long before NPM and the argued reforms emerged (Ferlie and Ongaro 2015). We provide evidence that SP is most potent in predicting organizational effectiveness and least valuable in enhancing efficiency. This framework has received support from scholars writing about public and private organizations (e.g., Elbanna 2008; Walker et al. Despite the popularity of SP, its effectiveness has been criticized by scholars of business and public organizations. Inclusion of individuals who are not partners, at least for some parts of the meeting, may also have advantages. Some of the topics include operations management theory, operations management research, etc. Strategic planning gives a practice the structure to make day-to-day decisions that follow a larger vision. The strength of the significant and positive population effect size was categorized as small to moderate, although closer to moderate (0.30) than small (0.10) (Cohen 1992). A strategic plan is a tool that moves your practice toward a goal you have set. Do these people have the necessary ability to generate and evaluate different strategic options? We add to a growing literature base that identifies beneficial outcomes related to organization‐environment fit, goal setting, and synoptic planning across sectors (e.g., Elbanna 2006; Vinzant and Vinzant 1996; Walker and Andrews 2015). strategic management proceeds through strategic analysis and planning, formulation of plans then implementation of the plans, and at last evaluation of past results. For instance, bigger organizations might have more resources to invest in formal and comprehensive SP processes, making it easier to achieve performance gains. Corporate Marketing Planning By Dr. Orok B. Arrey Federal University Wukari, Nigeria. This study determined the learning outcomes after a specific training program for hospital management teams. An author is expected to incorporate the suggested changes prior to publication. Examples include the GPRA Modernization Act in the United States (GAO 2011), Best Value in England and Wales (Boyne et al. The healthcare field is always changing and progressing at a rate unlike any other. Is your vision to be the leader in clinical research in your state?

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